2013;34:26474. Gibson GE, Jope R, Blass J. Synaptic plasticity is a special function of synapses, which play an important role in learning and memory processes , including structural and functional plasticity. 2008;86:718. Repeated exposure to low-level extremely low frequency-modulated microwaves affects cortex-hypothalamus interplay in freely moving rats: EEG study. Acta Pharmacol Sin. PubMed Synapses are special structures that are involved in the transmission of electrochemical signals between neurons in the central nervous system. After exposure to microwave irradiation (an average power density of 30mW/m2 for 5min/d on five days a week for two consecutive months), the expression of NR2B was decreased in rats, the level of Glu was increased in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid, spatial memory ability was decreased among rats with the TT genotype, and there was no change in the CC type and TC type animals. Per the FDA, the microwave can heat human skin. Microwaves can influence mitochondria by damaging their structure , reducing ATP levels and affecting the activity of relevant enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome coxidase (COX) [119,120,121]. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed recent studies that have explored the effects of microwave radiation on the brain, especially the hippocampus, including analyses of epidemiology, morphology, electroencephalograms, learning and memory abilities and the mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction. This conclusion is consistent with the results of a previously reported study that showed that short-term exposure to microwave radiation can reduce reaction times and improve cognitive functions, attention and short-term memory capacity [28,29,30,31,32,33,34]. CAS Merola P, Marino C, Lovisolo G, Pinto R, Laconi C, Negroni A. Physiol Behav. Bull Exp Biol Med. Their answers to questionnaires showed that the workers suffered from symptoms including headaches, fatigue, stress and sleeplessness. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Cellular telephones and cancera nationwide cohort study in Denmark. Arch Environ Health. 1996;180:917. Richter ED, Berman T, Ben-Michael E, Laster R, Westin JB. J Neurosci Methods. Interphone study group.  found that college students visual reaction times were significantly shorter after 10min of phone-induced microwave radiation. Im HI, Kenny PJ. Biol Chem. Google Scholar. Research continues on possible biological effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation from radios, cellular phones, the processing and cooking of foods, heat . 2014;53:22230. 2001;93:2037. Indian J Occup Environ Med. Numerous studies have shown that increased acetylcholine is related to promotion of the effect of glucose on memory [112,113,114]. The results showed that gestational Wi-Fi exposure and restraint adversely affected offspring neurodevelopment and behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, the expression of postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) in cultured neurons was decreased. Nimchinsky EA, Sabatini BL, Svoboda K. Structure and function of dendritic spines. The biological effects of RF energy are proportional to the rate of ener-gy absorption, and the level of absorption varies little with fre-quency. Thus, Cosquer et al. Fragopoulou AF, Samara A, Antonelou MH, Xanthopoulou A, Papadopoulou A, Vougas K, et al. 2006;398:2537. Qiao et al.  found that microwave radiation enhanced brain wave energy, decreased brain wave frequency, and increased the amplitude and power of delta frequency bands, indicating a decrease in learning ability [50,51,52,53]. This effect is similar to the decrease observed in NR2B in rats. 2015;140:23646. 2014;12:75. The function of dendritic spines: devices subserving biochemical rather than electrical computation.  assessed the use of mobile and cordless phones in 347 cases of melanoma in the head and neck region and 1184 controls and found no increased risk. So foods which have high water content can be very easily cooked like fresh vegetables. Of these, five rats were repeatedly exposed to extremely low-frequency microwaves (915MHz; pulse width, 20ms; average power density, 0.3mW/cm2; repetition frequency, 4.0Hz; intermittently for 1min, On for 1min, and Off for 10min; SAR, 0.7mW/g) and 5 were in the sham group. Verma RK, Sisodia R, Bhatia A. Radioprotective role of Amaranthus Gangeticus Linn. Numerous mechanisms can activate oxidative stress, including electromagnetic radiation, and thereby cause molecular damage. Motawi et al. 2012;31:6774. Ongwijitwat S, Wong-Riley MT. 2002;64:31353. The Microwave signals in the food can cause water molecules to pulsate, generates heat to cook the food. 2015;91:30611.  exposed volunteers to microwaves at a frequency of 450MHz for 10 repeated intervals of 1min of irradiation and 1min off. Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Lass J, Karai D, Tuulik V. Effect of low frequency modulated microwave exposure on human EEG: individual sensitivity. Messier C, Durkin T, Mrabet O, Destrade C. Memory-improving action of glucose: indirect evidence for a facilitation of hippocampal acetylcholine synthesis. Li-Feng Wang or Xiang-Jun Hu. Nakatani-Enomoto S, Furubayashi T, Ushiyama A, Groiss SJ, Ueshima K, Sokejima S, et al. The effects of microwave radiation on protein synthesis in brain remain undetermined. Morris R. Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. Effect of microwave electromagnetic fields on activity of energy metabolism cytochrome oxidase in cerebral cortical neurons of postnatal rats. Shahin S, Banerjee S, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. Besides, the Soviet Union banned microwaves in 1976 .  exposed male Wistar rats (1012weeks old) to a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) (900/1800MHz) mobile phone that was in vibrating mode (i.e., no ring tone). Wang H, Peng R, Zhou H, Wang S, Gao Y, Wang L, et al. Researchers have also used the 12-arm maze test on rats to test spatial working ability after exposure to 2.45GHz pulse microwave radiation. Cell Biochem Biophys. 1975;148:1723. . Otto M, von Mhlendahl KE. PubMed Central By using this website, you agree to our However, with its popularization, increasing attention has been paid to its influence on humans. Vecchio F, Babiloni C, Lizio R, Fallani FV, Blinowska K, Verrienti G, et al. Zhang Y, Li Z, Gao Y. 2008;169:3845. With the increasing number of applications that use microwave technology, its negative effects on the human body have attracted attention. Article Behav Brain Res. J Neuro. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Many adversarial effects on health causes by electromagnetic. Microwave radiation can induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, which lead to hippocampal neuronal and non-neuronal apoptosis via the oxidative damage of cellular constituents (i.e., nucleic acids, proteins and lipids) and subsequent over expression of p53, which up-regulates Bax and down-regulates pro-caspase-3 and full-length/uncleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) 1, eventually inducing neuronal degeneration via apoptosis . Brain cancer with induction periods of less than 10 years in young military radar workers. Exp Neurobiol. Technol Cancer Res Treat. Wang et al. RF energy has the ability to heat human tissue, much like the way that microwave ovens heat food, and can be hazardous if the exposure is sufficiently intense or prolonged. Campisi A, Gulino M, Acquaviva R, Bellia P, Raciti G, Grasso R, et al. Zhao et al. 2000;11:16413. Blood biochemical parameters of the radio-link station. However, in rats treated with long-term exposure to radiation, neurons exhibit edema and are arranged irregularly. Privacy 2005;161:52635. A metabolomic approach to screening urinary metabolites upon microwave exposure in monkeys. Cookies policy. Mortazavi et al. Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazards include radars and missile systems. The former is now recognized worldwide as a method for evaluating learning and memory, while the latter is viewed as more susceptible to other factors. Int J Radiat Biol. The authors found that 2.4GHz microwave radiation reduced the expression of some miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p and miR-107 . Othman H, Ammari M, Rtibi K, Bensaid N, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H. Postnatal development and behavior effects of in-utero exposure of rats to radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional WiFi devices. The potential mechanisms underlying these damaging effects range from gene expression alterations in the respiratory chain, membrane damage, Ca2+ overloading, and DNA impairment [122,123,124,125,126,127,128]. Biological effects of 2450 MHz microwave combined with -rays on rat cultured gliacytes. Szmigielski S. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones. In epidemiology, there is no conclusive evidence showing that microwaves have carcinogenic effects. Acetylcholine modulation of neural systems involved in learning and memory. We should ensure that we avoid excessive exposure to microwave radiation in daily life activities and use mobile phones appropriately despite information about its positive effects. Shahin found that regardless of whether exposure was long-term or short-term, 2.45GHz microwaves increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, which potentially led to apoptosis in hippocampal subfield neurons and non-neuronal cells as a result of p53-dependent/independent activation. 2012;25:1828. as it have a harmful side. 2015;148:150. J Clin Oncol. More data are available regarding opinions on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields . Sage C, Carpenter D, Hardell L. Comments on SCENIHR: opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. 2003;80:177. Belyaev IY, Koch CB, Terenius O, Roxstrm-Lindquist K, Malmgren LO, Sommer HW, et al. millimeter, or equivalently. 2007;210:63544.  found similar results. Whole-body exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields does not alter 12-arm radial-maze with reduced access to spatial cues in rats. Article fMicrowave Radiation Comes From Many Sources, Including: Cell phones. Jeong J. EEG dynamics in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Bioelectromagnetics. The results demonstrated the ability of electric magnetic field (EMF) to influence plasma melatonin and serotonin concentrations in radar workers. Statistically significant changes were detected in the EEG- bands of six individuals and in the 1 and 2 bands of four subjects in the higher SAR group. Int J Radiat Biol. Richter ED, Berman T, Levy O. Because the frequency of microwaves is sufficiently high that the energy is absorbed, the subsequent heating of tissue becomes its major mechanism, and most biochemical and physiological responses are temperature-dependent. Predictors and overestimation of recalled mobile phone use among children and adolescents. 2008;29:52738. Of the numerous studies performed to explore the effects of mobile communication devices on humans, only a few have shown that cell phones and brain tumors are statistically correlated.  exposed Wistar rats to 2.856GHz microwaves at an average power density of 5, 10, 20 or 30mW/cm2 for 6min three times per week for up to 6weeks and found that on day 14 after irradiation, the levels of Asp and Glu were lower in the hippocampus in the group treated with 5mW/cm2 but higher in the group treated with 30mW/cm2, The levels of GABA were elevated. 2016;397:2239. Microwaves are widely used in broadcasting, communications and many industrial fields.  irradiated Wistar rats with 10, 30 and 50mW/cm2 microwaves, and the results showed that in the cerebral cortex, only glycine (Gly) and asparagine (Asp) levels were increased. After exposure, the levels of 2 waves in the hypothalamus increased more than those in the cortex, leading to a significant reduction in the deviation of the two EGGs. 2007;28:187380. 2004;48:46624. eliminating microwave and RF sources. Electromagn Biol Med. Moreover, the risk of developing Alzheimers disease is 3040% lower in people who use a mobile phone for more than 10years than in other individuals . It is noteworthy that most of the above mentioned studies were based on the theory that the effects caused by microwaves are non-thermal. Conductors will strongly absorb microwaves and any lower frequencies because they will cause electric currents which will heat the material. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. Protein synthesis is necessary for dendritic spine proliferation in adult brain slices. Schz J, Jacobsen R, Olsen JH, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Johansen C. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: update of a nationwide Danish cohort. The results indicated that radar microwave radiation leads to a decreased reaction time and lower short-term memory performance . Koch C, Zador A. When nerve endings are excited, the vesicles release their contents into the synaptic cleft, resulting in synaptic transmission. Recent advances in the effects of microwave radiation on brains, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-017-0139-0, Dysfunction of learning and memory abilities, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic. In the population with occupational exposure, proper protective measures should be taken to avoid unnecessary harm. Bioelectromagnetics. Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer. Identification of a novel rat nr2b subunit gene promoter region variant and its association with microwave-induced neuron impairment. In the group treated with 0.8W/kg, there was no significant change. Lymphatic Systems: Due to chemical alterations within food substances, malfunctions occur in the lymphatic system, causing a degeneration of the body's ability to . Eliyahu I, Luria R, Hareuveny R, Margaliot M, Meiran N, Shani G. Effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted by cellular telephones on the cognitive functions of humans. 2 Researchers have been working. Vorobyov et al. 2017;38:106976. Calabr E, Condello S, Curr M, Ferlazzo N, Caccamo D, Magaz S, et al. Zhi, WJ., Wang, LF. Mortazavi SMJ, Taeb S, Dehghan N. Alterations of visual reaction time and short term memory in military radar personnel. Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted from W-CDMA-like mobile phones on sleep in humans. 2016;25:31827.  exposed rats to 9.15MHz microwaves (SAR: 0.4mW/g) for 2h. They found that in the cerebellum of all the exposed animals, 11 genes were up-regulated from 1.34- to 2.74-fold, and one gene was down-regulated 0.48-fold. Kumar M, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. pability of the body (thus, a thermal effect), whereas the standard of the U.S.S.R. and Poland are based upon the interaction of the microwave fields with the brain and central nervous system as measured by neurological or behavior effects. Cite this article. 2015;91:55561. Chronic exposure to GSM 1800-MHz microwaves reduces excitatory synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons. 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation Impairs Learning and Spatial Memory via Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Induced p53-Dependent/Independent Hippocampal Apoptosis: Molecular Basis and Underlying Mechanism. CAS Resulting Effects on the Human Body. 2014;9:e95503. CAS PubMed Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. frequency range from 1GHz to 10^6 GHz. Mitochondria morphologic changes and metabolic effects of rat hippocampus after microwave irradiation. 1988;9:33745. Lu M, Zhu J, Qian C, Wang G, Nie J, Tong J. 2010;3:4650. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with 2006;27:11926. Role of distinct NMDA receptor subtypes at central synapses. More than 50% of miRNAs are found in cancer-associated regions of the genome or in fragile sites, suggesting that miRNAs also play important roles in the pathogenesis of neoplasias . After 28days, the levels of Glu and Tau in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid were lower, indicating that the cognitive damage induced by microwave radiation is associated with a decrease in Glu [66, 67]. Motawi TK, Darwish HA, Moustafa YM, Labib MM. 2012;35:32534. One study reported by the Interphone study group  showed that there was no increase in the risk of glioma or meningioma in users of mobile phones. Mack et al. Google Scholar. Kang D, Hamasaki N. Mitochondrial transcription factor a in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Kwon et al. Chin J Indus Hyg. 2004;155:3743. 2001;12:72931.  exposed rat hippocampal neurons to microwaves (SAR values of 0.8W/kg and 2.4W/kg at an average power density of 1800MHz/d) and observed the formation of dendritic filopodial and dendritic branches and the maturation of dendritic spines in neurons from day 6 to 14. An increase in anxiety-related behaviors and a decrease in depression-related behavior were observed in both female and male offspring.